Gestational diabetes occurs when a pregnant woman has high levels of glucose in her blood. High blood glucose ( blood sugar) is caused because the mother can’t produce enough insulin (a pregnant woman’s insulin needs are two to three times that of normal). The increased need for insulin may be because of placental hormones that make it harder for insulin to do its job, or because of the growth demands of the developing baby.
Unlike other types of diabetes, gestation diabetes is not permanent and blood glucose usually returns to normal after baby is born. However, having gestation diabetes can increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes in the future, and of having gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies
The risks to the mother may include increased chances of:
If left untreated or undiagnosed, the risks to the baby may include:
Gestational diabetes should be managed by specialist healthcare professionals. In most cases, gestational diabetes is able to be managed by diet and exercise during the pregnancy. It usually disappears after the baby is born once the need for high levels of insulin (during pregnancy) has gone.
Some women with gestational diabetes require insulin to manage their blood sugar levels in a healthy range during the pregnancy. If insulin is required, it can help to keep both the mother and baby healthy during the pregnancy.